Reel Bad Arabs

Arabs are the most maligned group in the history of Hollywood — so says Dr. Jack Shaheen, noted media critic, author and presenter of the 2007 documentary film produced by the Media Education Foundation,
Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People.

Reel Bad Arabs dissects a slanderous aspect of cinematic history that has run virtually unchallenged from the earliest days of silent film to today’s biggest Hollywood blockbusters. The film explores a long line of degrading images of Arabs — from Bedouin bandits and submissive maidens to sinister sheikhs and gun-wielding terrorists — along the way offering devastating insights into the origin of these stereotypic images, their development at key points in U.S. history, and why they matter so much today.

Shaheen shows how the persistence of these images over time has served to naturalize prejudicial attitudes toward Arabs and Arab culture, in the process reinforcing a narrow view of individual Arabs and the effects of specific US domestic and international policies on their lives. By inspiring critical thinking about the social, political, and basic human consequences of leaving these Hollywood caricatures unexamined, the film challenges viewers to recognize the urgent need for counter-narratives that do justice to the diversity and humanity of Arab people and the reality and richness of Arab history and culture.

60 Comments

Filed under Films, Media

60 responses to “Reel Bad Arabs

  1. Ti-Guy

    It’s pretty depressing when it’s all laid out like that in one place. But it’s not something that’s particularly new when it comes to Hollywood’s depictions of whoever is America’s enemy-of-the-era.

    I had an early exposure to that during my childhood when I started wondering why playing cowboys and Indians or watching Hollywood Westerns wasn’t very popular where I grew up. It was only when I turned seven or eight that I learned that practically everyone was only one degree removed from someone aboriginal and these stereotypes weren’t just malign, but were stupid. No one even had to talk about it; they just knew, from looking around them, that they were. Since then, I tune out how Hollywood portrays foreigners; it’s practically never complimentary or realistic, no matter who it is, even when the depictions are meant to be flattering.

  2. Sure, the Arabs have it tough. But no one ever jumps to the defence of the English. How often did a Nazi in a movie speak with an English accent? All the bloody time.

    And as I am self-centred and dumb, I will say to the Arabs what I say to every maligned group: “I don’t think badly of you; I don’t think of you at all”.

  3. It would be fun to compile an anthology of film clips showing Hollywood’s attitude to Canada. My guess is we would see a linear trajectory of increasing fear, loathing, and contempt. We so often adjudge Hollywood bigotry as something discriminating–anti-black, anti-Semitic, anti-Arab, etc.–when it’s really just anti-non-American. Hollywood is America’s Nuremberg, and it’s there largely to perpetuate group cohesion.

  4. David — But no one ever jumps to the defence of the English. How often did a Nazi in a movie speak with an English accent? All the bloody time.

    Gee, I always thought that’s what made them somewhat attractive, debonair characters (think of James Mason as Rommel). That, and they dressed so much better than anyone else in the war.

    If you really want to talk about negative English stereotypes, there are plenty of those in Hollywood films — more often than not, we’re portrayed as fops, eccentric twits, pompous nincompoops, or charming but unscrupulous weasels.

  5. SF — Pierre Berton wrote a book called Hollywood’s Canada: The Americanization of Our National Image in 1975 about the subject.

    Celluloid Canada is high lunacy for those who either know the reality or care to learn from Berton’s detailed corrections of the films. The recurring stereotypes include high-minded “get-your-man” Mounties, inaccurately costumed and thundering on their steeds across totally misplaced mountains; and the inevitable hot-blooded French Canadian-grizzled, touqued and lusting after any and all white women. There are also hostile Indian tribes patterned after some simplistic standard of redskin-signifiers appear in a forest primeval: a vast, hostile, isolating, un-urbanized landscape of perpetual snow, covering rich natural resources and uninhabited, except for a few prospectors (American), Mounties (Canadian), exiles (American) and primitives (Canadian).

    Since the time that book was written, I’d argue that we’ve been largely ignored by Hollywood or used as a synonym in the modern context for a convenient place of obscurity where characters sometimes go to disappear entirely.

  6. Ti-Guy

    I’d argue that we’ve been largely ignored by Hollywood or used as a synonym in the modern context for a convenient place of obscurity where characters sometimes go to disappear entirely.

    That’s coincided, incidentally, with an (albeit minor) increase in the degree of general awareness of and knowledge about Canada among Americans (at least, the non-wingnut ones), for which I believe this may amount to doing us a favour.

    The interesting thing is that despite Jack Shaheen’s optimism, negative stereotypes of the Other among Americans are never completely undone and come roaring back when you least expect it. Last year’s election made that all too clear to me. Watermelon? Bones through the nose? Licentious negros?

    …WTF?

  7. Okhropir rumiani

    Jack Shaheen, an Arab Christian, had been floating the ‘Reel Bad Arabs’ hypothesis for awhile even before 9-11, in Arab Christian publications.

    Since he’s a Christian he’s a little more concerned with defending Arabs rather than Muslims.

    Like Ti-guy says now Islam is the enemy-of-the-era but I think it’s been handled more lightly than in the news and print media where it’s been brutalized. I mean in comparison to the ways Nazis and Communists had it in Hollywood. The movie ‘Rules of Engagement’ got shot down pretty quick.

    As to the English, how many sophisticated villains have you seen without an English accent? That’s the one I always think of.

  8. Ti-Guy — Yeah, I have to admit to being kind of taken aback when some of those ridiculous old negro stereotypes rose up from the past with the help of inveterate racist scum that live amongst us.

    Kate’s gleeful revival of vile old cartoons in which they featured was a real nadir in this regard. And this is Canada’s “Best Blogger” according to the online hoi polloi … Yikes!

  9. Okhropir rumiani

    Hmm, I take it back. Maybe the Arabs have got it as bad as anyone. Teach me not to view the clip first.

  10. Ti-Guy

    Kate’s gleeful revival of vile old cartoons in which they featured was a real nadir in this regard.

    I’d cut her some slack. She was deeply traumatised by L’il Abner and Deliverance. That she had her revenge at the expense of Negros (of which there are exactly two in the entire province of Saskatchewan) is unfortunate, however.

  11. Okhropir — Since he’s a Christian he’s a little more concerned with defending Arabs rather than Muslims.

    Not sure if I fully understand your point here, but wouldn’t you agree that the negative, stereotypical portrayal in American movies has effectively conflated the two things? In other words, Muslims = Arabs. Obviously, that’s not the reality, but given that only 1 in 7 Americans can find Iraq on a map of the world, subtlety and depth of understanding when it comes to co-inhabitants of planet Earth isn’t exactly their strong point. Perhaps they really think that the two things are one and the same.

  12. “I always thought that’s what made them somewhat attractive, debonair characters (think of James Mason as Rommel). That, and they dressed so much better than anyone else in the war.”

    Agreed. Still, where was the crying and whining about being victimised? And let’s not even start in on Werner Klemperer.

  13. Okhropir rumiani

    Yes, I agree with your point that many Americans equate arabs with Muslims. Mr. Shaheen pointed out that the Iranian revolution was part of what turned Americans against Arabs and Iranians aren’t arabs.

    Palestinian Christians who have been indigenous to the area for 2000 years, have found extremely bitter irony that the American Christian support of Israel is wiping out their communities, when they too are demonized as ‘terrorists’.

  14. David — I’m somewhat conflicted here, but I’ve never felt “victimized” in any way even though “my people” (such as they are, and I’m reluctant to even describe them as such) may have routinely been made the subject of mockery or otherwise ridiculed in popular culture. There’s a huge difference however between being poked fun at or made to look absurd (much of which is self-generated) as a stereotype and an active sort of discrimination, demeaning forms of behaviour and a campaign of degrading vilification. It’s quite wrong to equate these things.

  15. Ti-Guy — I’d cut her some slack. She was deeply traumatised by L’il Abner and Deliverance.

    Perhaps. Who knows where these bigoted notions spring from in the wilds of Saskatchewan…

  16. “It’s quite wrong to equate these things.”

    My bad. I’m playing it for shits and giggles because to me, the supposed vilification of the Arabs and the use of Brits as Nazis are the same thing. I no more consider one group bad due to their treatment in a movie than I do the other. I don’t care. I care about assholes who cut me off in traffic and don’t flush after they shit, but movies? Too fucking bad. I mean, how many Arabs blew up Alderaan? How many Arabs forced Robert Urich into a life of crime in Ice Pirates?

    You know what would help this conversation? If I watched the video embedded in the post.

  17. Ti-Guy

    You know what would help this conversation? If I watched the video embedded in the post.

    Heh. Most definitely.

    I did. All 50 minutes of it. No wonder I don’t watch any teevee anymore.

  18. David — It’s worth watching. That’s why I posted it. I try not to waste people’s time. 😉

  19. “I try not to waste people’s time. ;)”

    Sorry, I was not inferring that you would do so. I was merely pointing out the uselessness of engaging me.

  20. Heh. I prefer to naively assume that people argue in good faith and engage them accordingly, but I appreciate your honesty in indicating that my sentiment is woefully misplaced in this instance.

  21. Red, it is my fault for thinking that my previous utterances in this venue had sufficiently painted me as worthy of ignoring. I apologise for abusing your good nature.

  22. Alright Red, in an effort to drop the mask and “argue in good faith and engage…accordingly,” Dr. Shaheen references “Cannonball Run II”.

    Really?

    Then he says that 300 films slur Arabs.

    So? Who takes their world view from film? That is the point of this, is it not? That stupid people will not be able to tell the difference between movies and reality. Do you really think that film is pushing stupid people to hate Arabs? Holy crap, I am suddenly really depressed.

  23. Oh dear. Using “Ernest In The Army”, and the movies of Golan and Globus as your selling points is laughable.

    Certainly the idea of not hating anyone or any ethnic group or nationality based upon their depiction in for-profit film is laudable. But the ham-fisted, badly referenced way in which it was handled in this video suffices to bury the message. A message I thought all decent folk already knew.

    Rose coloured glasses. Yes, I know.

  24. David — Actually, according to the producers of the documentary, Shaheen viewed 1,000 films and found that only 6 to 7 percent portrayed Arabs in a favourable or non-negative way.

  25. I don’t argue with the premise, I just think his references are laughable stupid. Eugene Levy? Really? I guess I don’t take any social cues from movies so I found the whole thing tiresome and whiny. But I didn’t watch True Lies and develop a bad attitude towards Palestinians. ‘Cause it was a movie. So, I’m not really arguing with you or Shaheen, more with the tone of the piece. I don’t think badly of Arabs as a group, I don’t think about them at all.

    But don’t get me started on french-speaking guys from northern Ontario. Man, those guys piss me off.

  26. Ti-Guy

    But don’t get me started on french-speaking guys from northern Ontario. Man, those guys piss me off.

    Alex Trebek pisses you off?

  27. Okhropir rumiani

    Methinks David doth protest too much.

  28. David — I think you’re missing the point by concentrating too much attention on certain film references that you find laughable or irrelevant. Indeed, they may well be that, but the point is that these stereotypes are so widespread and deeply embedded in our pop cultural psyche that they’re almost a given and largely unchallenged. In fact, your argument is almost self-defeating because by highlighting trivial films of little consequence, it only reinforces the pervasive nature of the negative stereotype involved.

    Personally, the reference that took me aback was the one from Gladiator… when I thought about it afterwards, it is completely ridiculous that the Iberian slavers providing fodder for the Roman empire’s gladiatorial circuit were portrayed as they were — it was completely ahistorical and gratuitous, but I didn’t even notice it at the time.

    I agree with Okhropir… you protest too much.

  29. harebell

    I think that there is certainly an issue with the portrayal of Arabs in cinema, but would take issue with the tag “most vilified.” Cinema has often vilified out groups in all societies, Jews in Europe, Blacks in the USA etc.
    The biggest concern for me is the number of actors who take on these roles and basically commit a racist act in order to fill their bank accounts. My concern is doubled when these actors are of Arab descent themselves and they have no problem reinforcing prejudices the ignorant in a society already have.

  30. Harebell — I think the “most vilified” tag is utilized by virtue of the fact that this particular stereotype has largely gone unchallenged for such a long time.

    Yes, other groups have been similarly demonized in cinema, but those stereotypes have been rejected and found to be completely unacceptable in popular culture, whereas the Arab one persists almost unabated as a matter of course.

    It’s incumbent on us as viewers to be more aware of this and to call out those actors who immorally help perpetuate these negative portrayals for a hefty paycheque.

  31. Grammin

    Just to play devil’s advocate, might one on some level assume that these stereotypes are somewhat earned? Either by way of indifference, or by direct or indirect activity, many stereotyped groups have made themselves easy to group and pigeonhole. Just as the Germans mended their ways, and blacks eventually (for the most part) stopped feeling sorry for themselves and rose above the fray so as to quash stereotypes, so too will Arabs (though that is questionable). If and when Arabic nations embrace secularism and allow their culture to rise out of the shadow of islamo-fascism, perhaps then they will be cast in a better light. As for minority groups (ie. arabic christians), their voices are silent in the regimes that control the middle east and to ask for them to be stereotyped differently is something akin to asking a Yank to not forget about the Metis, ’cause they’re not like them other Canadians.
    It is what it is and Hollywood panders to the lowest common denominator anyway. Easily categorized enemies are a hoot.

  32. Ti-Guy

    Just as the Germans mended their ways, and blacks eventually (for the most part) stopped feeling sorry for themselves and rose above the fray so as to quash stereotypes

    What evidence can you provide that Germans or black did this? Moreover, since when did blacks feel “sorry for themselves?”

    Gosh, playing Devil’s Advocate sure is fun!

  33. Ti-Guy

    To add:

    As for minority groups (ie. arabic christians), their voices are silent in the regimes that control the middle east and to ask for them to be stereotyped differently is something akin to asking a Yank to not forget about the Metis, ’cause they’re not like them other Canadians.

    Can anyone tell me what this means?

  34. Grammin

    Re: Merely that someone mentioned that all Arabs are stereotyped as Muslims, but since that is the predominant force in every Arab state, it would silly to ascribe a stereotype while making allowances for silent minorities – it is not a realistic argument. The nature of a stereotype is that it paints an entire population with the same stroke.

    As for Germans and Blacks, that is merely my opinion. The slave/victim card was a huge liability for Blacks advancing both their image and their place in society. While it still exists, it is an exception and not the norm. The emergence of positive role-models and an educated population has rendered former stereotypes of Blacks quite dated and silly, no?

    Germans were defeated and bore the brunt of much abuse for the sins of the Nazis. Out of this they have succeeded in progressing with a vibrant economy and renewed spirit. To be prominent after being humiliated is somewhat of an achievement, no? They have even managed to absorb an Eastern-Block nation and improve the lives of their brethren.

    So, I suppose my point is that Arabs, if it is their choice to do so, should endeavor to advance themselves and improve their collective image by way of casting aside the fanaticism and instead perhaps celebrating and displaying their rich culture and history.
    If all they have to offer is a 6th century AD religion, dictators, human rights abuses, and suicide bombing, it is little wonder that they are stereotyped the way that they are.

    Again, without a boring list of specific examples or proof, i will merely state that this is my opinion and how I see it (and I suspect representative of a consensus of average North Americans as well).

  35. “I agree with Okhropir… you protest too much.”

    And by that you mean what? Could you both say it out loud?

  36. Ti-Guy

    I don’t know (nor care) what you’re talking about. Your comment is too long. But this:

    The emergence of positive role-models and an educated population has rendered former stereotypes of Blacks quite dated and silly, no?

    Seems to suggest that those stereotypes had some basis in reality at some point in history. I’ll ask you again on what evidence do you base that?

  37. Ti-Guy

    By the way, Grammin…the Nazi period in Germany represents a mere blip in the entire history of the German people. They emerged quickly from the rubble of WW2 by returning to the (relative) norms of civilisation they had embodied earlier. It wasn’t really much of an accomplishment.

    You’re comparing apples to oranges.

  38. “Alex Trebek pisses you off?”

    Mr. “I Know All the Answers”? Hell yes.

  39. Ti-Guy

    So, I suppose my point is that Arabs, if it is their choice to do so, should endeavor to advance themselves and improve their collective image by way of casting aside the fanaticism and instead perhaps celebrating and displaying their rich culture and history.
    If all they have to offer is a 6th century AD religion, dictators, human rights abuses, and suicide bombing, it is little wonder that they are stereotyped the way that they are.

    And how exactly, do you propose the Saudis and the Egyptians do that, when their autocratic leaders are supported so enthusiastically (not to mention financially) by the West? How do you think they feel about that prospect when the only popular revolution in the region, the Iranian one, has been undermined for three decades?

  40. Ti-Guy

    Mr. “I Know All the Answers”? Hell yes.

    You think it’s fun being a French-speaking Northern Ontarian who knows all the answers and is right all the time? Well, it isn’t. It’s Hell.

  41. Grammin

    Apples to oranges? Perhaps, but i was speaking more to the 20th century version of stereotyping.

    I will wholeheartedly agree with you that some governments in these regions (often the worst of them) are supported by the West and it is a lot more complicated then simply snapping one’s fingers and reinventing how one is perceived.

    I suppose time will give us a new series of sound bytes that will usher in a new enemy du jour and Arabs just won’t be funny or scary anymore. I was always fond of the Iron Sheikh anyway.

  42. Ti-Guy

    Grammin, you have to realise that stereotypes don’t emerge from their targets all by themselves, but are descriptions imposed by others. On their own, groups of people are rarely ever able to describe what makes them distinct, beyond obvious cultural/ethnic traits such as language, religion, skin colour, habitat, etc. etc.

    We all know what when we hear of stereotypes about ourselves. They’re rarely ever true, and they’re mostly irritating.

  43. harebell

    Red
    Most vilified doesn’t necessarily have anything to do with how long a particular group has been depicted without notice. To me a real indicator of vilification is even when we know it is happening we still kinda accept it. Jews and Blacks still rate at the top of this scale.
    Ti
    That said I still have to ask why actors still portray negative stereotypes. Any Arab that depicts the stereotypical role of terrorist or whatever is really guilty of selling out his people, anybody of any other race pretending to be an Arab is as bad as a black and white minstrel.
    Responsibility for how various ethnicities are portrayed on the silver screen lies with those who are willing to either be racist or sell out their own for the dollar. Until everyone is willing to call them what they are Hollywood will continue to make money via the lowest common denominator.

  44. Ti-Guy

    That said I still have to ask why actors still portray negative stereotypes. Any Arab that depicts the stereotypical role of terrorist or whatever is really guilty of selling out his people, anybody of any other race pretending to be an Arab is as bad as a black and white minstrel.

    Yeah, well in that respect you’re being a typical, tedious lefty. You’re obsessing about something that really doesn’t matter in the grand scheme of things (How difficult is it for you to understand that bills must be paid?). If you’re that mystified by Arabs accepting roles that demean them, I suggest you ask one why he/she did. You do know some Arabs, don’t you?

  45. I’ll ask you again on what evidence do you base that?

    I’m rather disappointed and surprised that Grammin failed to hit your slow pitch out of the park, Ti, by pointing out that racist caricatures such as “Amos ‘n’ Andy” provided fairly accurate depictions of the kind of stupid, shiftless, worthless Negroes who were the rule in America until they stopped playing the “slave/victim card” and wised up.

  46. Guzzeuntite

    “It would be fun to compile an anthology of film clips showing Hollywood’s attitude to Canada. My guess is we would see a linear trajectory of increasing fear, loathing, and contempt.” — Frank

    I don’t know if it would be fun, but I do know that it wouldn’t take long.

    As to the rest: Fear? Frank, dear, South Park, was joking about the “blame Canada” thing, you oversensitive, humorless, and insecure boy. As to loathing and contempt, I am very sorry to say, but Americans generally don’t get past: “Canadians? Friendly* but they sure sound dumb. This must be from living like a bunch of flannel-clad bumkins.” This is not really contempt as much as not caring in least about you dwellers of the Upper Upper Midwest.

    __________

    *See? Most Americans are wrong in this regard

  47. Guzzeuntite

    I know I am only an American and therefore cannot distinguish between “Arabs” and “Muslim.” But, after all, what the hell is the difference to all of you anyway, as you accuse us of being anti-Arab, anti-Muslim, racist, homophobic, xenophobic, and panphobic?

    I see you never tire of it. I also love this hatred you all express for “Faux News” (or as one of RT’s more dimwitted readers puts it, “Fucks News”).

    Well, what is so Islamophobic about this, as expressed by Charles Krauthammer (on Fucks News, of course), you purveyors of the only kind of prejudice that is sanctioned, celebrated, and excused?

    I’ll tell you: It’s not Islamophobic. Unlike any of you it neatly expressed our only hatred, the hatred of tyranny, and the love of those who fight against it.

    Jeez, RT, I am disappointed over your simplism.

  48. harebell

    Ti
    A few and unfortunately there are no luvvies amongst them. I also know a few Persians and some N Africans too (moslems, xtians the odd zoroastrian and a very rare atheist).
    /tedious lefty hat on
    But really what is the difference between a Black and White Minstrel singing “mammy” and an actor who portrays Arabs demeaningly?I’m just curious because one has been already been deemed socially unacceptable and the other seems to be fine and the nuances in the reasoning are just a tad too subtle for me.
    /tedious lefty hat off

  49. Ti-Guy

    But really what is the difference between a Black and White Minstrel singing “mammy” and an actor who portrays Arabs demeaningly?

    Well, I’m not an actor, so I can’t say for sure, but as you can see in the clips above, some of the roles, while demeaning to Arabs, are also quite challenging and dramatic and might appeal to an actor simply because it requires the full exercise of their craft. The caricatures of black people are mostly dumb and unchallenging, but even then, I can imagine a comedian taking them on. These people are mostly artists, not activists.

    I’d really reserve my harshest criticism for the producers, directors and writers who create these roles and the for the audiences, without whom there’d be no demand. Besides, if an Arab didn’t play the role, they’d just get some other off-white or beige person to do it. Remember, Americans can’t tell the difference between a Latino and a Filipino.

    Don’t get me wrong; Arabs should refuse to take on demeaning roles, but it’s not where I’d focus my criticism.

  50. Ti-Guy

    But, after all, what the hell is the difference to all of you anyway, as you accuse us of being anti-Arab, anti-Muslim, racist, homophobic, xenophobic, and panphobic?

    And psychotic, don’t forget that one.

  51. “You think it’s fun being a French-speaking Northern Ontarian who knows all the answers and is right all the time? Well, it isn’t. It’s Hell.”

    It’s the Mantarians Burden.

  52. Ti-Guy

    What’s a Mantarian?

    *gasp* I don’t know everything!

  53. … it neatly expressed our only hatred, the hatred of tyranny…

    …a “hatred of tyranny” most vividly expressed through America’s financial, diplomatic, and military support for the lion’s share of the 20th century’s most wretched despots and through its supine indifference to racial tyranny at home.

    It’s a good thing the American “education” system no longer requires its inmates to read books; literacy might make the trogs even more dangerous than they are.

  54. Ti-Guy

    It’s a good thing the American “education” system no longer requires its inmates to read books; literacy might make the trogs even more dangerous than they are.

    Reminds me of the last time I took a winter holiday in the tropics. The resort was besieged by a army of American middle-managers from Home Depot or something and the place, renowned for its tranquillity, was anything but. I showed up for a smart afternoon cocktail at one of the beach clubhouses and this stranger brays out to me “You brought a book to the beach?!!” The sad thing was, he was trying to be friendly. Thank God I’m a gracious person in real life.

  55. “What’s a Mantarian?”

    We truly live in a post-literate society. I guess the book you brought to the beach was part of the Danielle Steele oeuvre.

    Broaden your horizons Ti-Guy.

  56. Ti-Guy

    Broaden your horizons Ti-Guy.

    Danke schön. By the way, I don’t consider the districts of Kenora, Thunder Bay or Rainy River Northern Ontario. And the book I brought to the beach was Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Ingenuity Gap. I remember that because, being a gracious person and all that, I showed it to the boorish American to spark a conservation. His eyes glazed over, naturally.

  57. “I don’t consider the districts of Kenora, Thunder Bay or Rainy River Northern Ontario.”

    Geographist.

    “the book I brought to the beach was Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Ingenuity Gap”

    I figured as much, but praising you for shocking an Amurican wouldn’t bring out one of your scathing rebuttals. Of course, neither did my weak sauce.

  58. Ti-Guy

    Why would I ever be scathing to you? You’re hilarious.

    I think I’m the only here who gets your sense of humour.

  59. jkg

    It’s the Mantarians Burden

    In my younger years, I knew a precocious Manitoban who floated the idea of creating Manibec that would also include all of Ontario, except for its southern parts, like the Golden Horseshoe, a term funny enough more well known outside of that region.

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