Category Archives: Architecture

Woolworths: Dead (Again!)

woolworth-gilded-age

Poor old Frank W. Woolworth must be spinning yet again in his trustworthy, bargain-basement “5 and dime” grave at the latest, and perhaps mercifully final death-throws of his century-old (nearly) retail chain.

The venerable outfit folded its operations here in Canada about 15 yrs. ago when it sold out most of its stores to Wal-Mart giving that chain a ready-made commercial network of anchor tenancies in shopping malls and plazas across the land. Since then, its vestigial remnants have been desperately thrashing about in foreign markets — sort of like the same way that slaughtered animals continue to stubbornly “live” for a bit of time, twitching in a rather disturbing manner long after the sentient parts of their bodies have been cleanly severed.

Oh well. Such is the way of things — retailers come and go. Who would have thought 25 years ago that Eaton’s would disappear overnight in a puff of smoke? Accountancy of the free-market and all that. Personally, I miss the grand department stores and stylish icons of yesteryear (i-Magnin, The Bon, etc.) as opposed to the sterile “big box” hyper-marts (or “Mega-Lo-Mart” as they call it on King of the Hill).

But back to old F.W. Woolworth… Apparently, he had an inordinate fondness for Gothic-Revival architecture, in particular the Houses of Parliament in London. The Cass Gilbert designed skyscraper that Woolworth built to headquarter his company was intended to be a “Cathedral of Commerce” — a motif that comes across loud and clear.

Constructed in 1913, the tower reaches a height of 241,2m (793.5 feet). Until the completion of the Bank of Manhattan tower and Chrysler building in 1930, the Woolworth building was the tallest building in the world. The tower has a 3 story stone base, 52 stories clad in terra-cotta and a 3 story roof topped with the crowning pinnacle. An observation deck at the 58th story attracted about 100,000 visitors each year, but it was closed in 1945.

The building’s height caused several challenges at the time: it was the first building to have its own steam turbines and it had the fastest elevators (30 in total). The tower was built to withstand a wind pressure of 200 mph (322 km/h). Special kinds of scaffolding were used to minimize the danger for the construction workers.

Below is a picture of the Wal-Mart headquarters in Bentonville, AK.

Wal-Mart HQ

Perhaps there’s some message to be drawn from the contrast between the glorious, ridiculously fantastic, neo-Gothic “Cathedral of Commerce” that F.W. Woolworth built as a manifest paean to Capitalism and the rather drab, stridently buttoned-down, utilitarian bunker favoured by the current Masters of the Retail Universe.

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May His Sole Rest in Peace

Thomas Bata, the Czech-born businessman and industrialist whose name is a byword for shoes, died today in a Toronto hospital at the age of 93. He will, of course, always be uniquely remembered here.

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北京國家游泳中心

Originally designed by the Australian firm PTW Architects, the Beijing National Aquatic Center (aka “The Water Cube”) is comprised of a steel space frame clad with 100,000 sq m of ETFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene) bubbles that are only eight one-thousandths of an inch in total thickness. This transparent plastic film absorbs solar radiation and reduces thermal loss allowing for more light and heat penetration than traditional glass, resulting in a 30% decrease in energy costs over conventional materials.

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北京 建筑

The new headquarters of China Central Television (CCTV) completed to broadcast the Beijing Olympics. The building was designed by Rem Koolhass of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA).

Started in March 2003, the total construction cost has been estimated at €600m. The CCTV tower will employ 10,000 people following its completion. Because of its radical shape, the 51 story building has acquired nicknames such as “Sweet Donut” and “SpongeBob Squarepants” by locals.

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New U.S. Embassy: “Banal” & “Cheap”

Pictured above: The new embassy and the pre-WWII building.

After 70 years, the United States re-opened its embassy in Berlin last week. Despite being taken as a sign of renewal in German-American relations by some, the building’s aesthetic has been subject to withering criticism:

…architecture critic Gerwin Zohlen is unimpressed. He partly called the newly unveiled exterior “boring” and a “rather uninspired” example of 1980s post-modernism that was already out of date.

He suggested Berliners nickname the building by California architects Moore Ruble Yudell the “Pancake,” in reference to the main-road side that tourists will pass on their way to the Holocaust Memorial.

“It gives the impression of being horizontally stretched out,” he told DPA news agency.

Instead of projecting the grandeur of a superpower, the building suggested a nation that had given up being world policeman and withdrawn into self-defense, Zohlen said.

“It would look okay in the US Midwest. But it doesn’t suit an inner city in ‘Old Europe.’”

Zohlen said the stonework was shoddy and the building looked “cheap,” a view that has a basis in fact, since the US Congress pared back the construction budget by $60 million compared to the original proposal.

He called the building “bunker-style,” a charge also lobbed at the French embassy, which opened across the square in 2003.

The Germans, according to former US Ambassador John Kornblum, “criticize almost everything that gets built.” It’s a “sort of public sport,” he said.

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